Body diagrams, found in some of the assessment instruments, can prove very useful.
Not only can the clinician view the patient’s perception of the topographic area of pain but the patient may demonstrate psychological distress by an inability to localize the pain or by magnifying it and projecting it to other areas of the body. Localized pain is pain that is confined to its site of origin without radiation or migration.
In addition, it often has an associated autonomic component, such as diaphoresis, capillary vasodilation, hypertension, or tachycardia. Pain etiology By taking a complete history and answering the preceding two questions, the clinician can begin to formulate the causes of the pain.
The following questions help define them: What is the time course of the pain? Children as young as 5 years who are able to count and have some concept of numbers (e.g., “8 is larger than 4”) may use this scale. These are similar to the verbal numeric rating scales, except that the patient marks on a measured line, one end of which is labeled “no pain” and the other end, “worst pain imaginable,” where the pain falls.
Visual scales are more valid for research purposes, but they are less used clinically because they are more time consuming to conduct than verbal scales. Evaluating pain in children can be very difficult because of the child’s inability to describe pain or understand pain assessment forms. Face 5 hurts as much as you can imagine, although you don’t have to be crying to feel this bad.
Pain can be described using the numeric rating scale, during activities such as walking, standing, sitting, and routine chores. Medication use, alcohol use, emotional responses, and family responses may also be helpful information to record.
Pain diaries may reflect a patient’s pain more accurately than a retrospective description that may significantly over- or underestimate pain. Pain location Knowing the location and distribution of pain is extremely important for understanding the pathophysiology of the pain complaint.
The BPI correlates with scores of activity, sleep, and social interactions. Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Pain Center pain assessment form The MGH form (Fig.